¿Es la ruela del mono es una enfermedad de transmission sex?

Durante la mayor parte de las seis decasas en las que se se sabe que la ruuela simica ha infected a seres humanos, no se le conocía como una enfermedad de transmisción sexual. Ahora, eso ha cambiado.

The actual outbreak is, por mucho, the biggest of the virus, and it has been designated as a global emergency. Hasta el momento, according to the authorities, all the evidence indicates that the disease propagates mainly in networks of men who have sexual relations with other men.

“Clearly they are propagandizing like an ETS (enfermedad de transmission sexual) en este momento,” said Dr. Tom Inglesby, Director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security.

Para proteger a las personas con mayor riesgo mientras SE intensa contenar la propagación, las agencias de salud pública están rando su atencio en esos hombres, y cobatiendo al virus basándos en su behaviorativa actual.

On Wednesday, the Director General of the World Health Organization recommended to men who are at risk of contracting the smallpox virus that they consider the possibility of reducing their sexual partners “for the moment”.

But this is a complicated outbreak that could change its form of propagation to the most affected demographic groups. There is also a debate on whether smallpox should be considered as a sexually transmitted disease (ETS), and some critics complain that the term creates a stigma and could be used for hobby abusers.

Smallpox can also be transmitted in other ways, and it is not sufficient to use condoms or other measures that are usually used in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, according to Inglesby and other experts.

This is what you know:

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¿QUE CONVIERTE A UNA ENFERMEDAD EN UNA ETS?

A transmitted disease is commonly defined as one that propagates mainly through sexual contact. Pero algunas de ellas también se pueden contagiar de otra forma. HIV can be transmitted by shared needles. La syphilis se puede contagiar con besos. It has been known that a common infection caused by parasites, trichomoniasis, can be propagated by sharing wet objects like towels and sponges.

La viruela símica no suele transmitirse entre seres humanos, y los experts aún intendan comprender la manera exacta en que pasa de una persona a otra. In Africa, where small outbreaks have been common for years, people have been infected by bites from rodents or small animals.

But in May, cases began to appear in Europe, the United States and other parts of the world that showed a clear pattern of infection through intimate contact with an infected person, as well as many other transmitted diseases.

Health workers who respond to outbreaks have a leading role in public perception. Much of the work around smallpox has been carried out by professionals who operate sexual health clinics or specialize in sexual transmission diseases.

In fact, the response of the American government needs to be in charge of people with this type of knowledge, said David C. Harvey, Executive Director of the National Coalition of Directors of ETS.

“El campo de las ETS tiene un amplio conocimiento y especialización en estas áreas, desarrollado a lo largo decadas de combatir distintos brotes y enfermedades que afectan a las mismas comunidades que hoy se venjoméla de la vida har en la vida” .

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¿QUIÉNES ESTÁN ENFERMANDO DE VIRUELA SÍMICA?

Funcionarios de la OMS señalaron la semana pasada que el 99% de todos los casos de varuela símica outside the African continent were men and that, of them, el 98% involucraban a hombres que tienen concecional hombres hombres. Los experts suspect that outbreaks of smallpox in Europe and North America were triggered by sexual relations in two rave parties in Belgium and Spain.

The statistics are the same for cases reported in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC por sus initiales en inglés). Al igual que en Europe, también se han registered cases in other demographic groups, including at least 13 people who were women at birth and at least two children.

Last week, the New England Journal of Medicine published a study of hundreds of viral infections in 16 countries. Discovered that the supposed medium of contagion in 95% of cases was close sexual contact, as reported by doctors. The researchers highlighted that it was impossible to confirm sexual transmission.

The idea seems to be ratified with the discovery that the majority of men have lesions in the anal, genital or mouth areas, the researchers said.

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¿POR QUÉ EL DEBATE SOBRE CATALOGARLA COMO ETS?

Although there is an ample consensus among the health authorities that the smallpox is transmitted during sexual encounters, some experts debate on whether it should be called ETS. Les preoccupa que el termo stigmatice unjustamente y pueda socavar los efforts para identificar casos y controlar el brote.

Cuando una enfermedad es definita como una infección de transmissión sexual que afectata principamente hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con otros hombres, muchas personas empiezan en pensar en ella como “una enfermedad de gays” que no para Jasonello di, Farriesgo un. epidemiólogo de la Facultad de Enfermería Johns Hopkins.

That’s what happened in the early days of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, which contributed to the spread of HIV to other groups, Farley said.

“No aprendemos nada de nuestra historia”, said Farley, quien es homosexual.

The recommendation of the WHO that men at risk limit their number of sexual partners is a sensible public health advice, he added. Pero también amplifica “el mensaje de que esta es una enfermedad de homosexuales”, assured.

“Esa es la la gada línea entre tener una postura de salud pública que se centra en la epidemiología actuale, en comparison con la posibilità del surgimiento continuo de nuevas infecciónes” en la comunidad general, he said.

“La viruela símica no es una enfermedad de transmission sexual”, he continued. “Es una infection que puede transmitirse por contacto sexual”.

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QUÉ SE SABE DE SU MODO DE CONTAGIO?

Some researchers have found evidence of the smallpox virus in semen. A study in Spain found DNA of the smallpox virus in the semen of some infected men, as well as in their saliva and other bodily fluids. But the study did not respond if the virus could actually propagate through semen.

Resolving this could affect the understanding not only of the way in which men transmit the infection, but of how long they could be contagious. También se ha encontrato evidencia de algunos otros viruses, como el ebola y el Zika, en el semen de algunos hombres después de que pensaron que estaban recuperados por completo.

En tanto, scientists believe that the main route of contagion during the current outbreak is skin-to-skin contact during sexual encounters with a person with symptoms. En ese sentido, es similar al herpes, señalaron algunos expertos.

The virus can also be propagated through saliva and droplets that are released during respiration, in prolonged face-to-face contact, such as during kisses and hugs, a type of transmission that does not require sexual contact.

The researchers analyze how often and in what situations this type of contagion could occur, said Christopher Mores, professor of global health at the George Washington University.

“No nos haríamos ningún bien excluyendo alguna possibility en este momento”, he assured.

Officials also affirm that people can become infected with smallpox when touching something that was previously in contact with the body fluids of an infected person, such as towels or sheets. It is believed that this would explain the cases of children in the United States.

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¿POR QUE SON IMPORTANTES ESTOS DETALLES?

It is important to understand exactly how smallpox is propagated in order to provide the population with the information it requires for its protection, health officials say.

Habiendo dicho eso, las authorities de salud creen que aquellas personas que están en Mayor riesgo son hombres homosexuales o bisexuales que tienen relaciones sexuales con varias parejas. That conclusion has molded a good part of the response to the virus, including the prioritization of the supply of vaccines and treatments.

The government has been distributing a vaccine against smallpox, but its supply is limited. Hasta el momento, its application is only recommended as a treatment for previous exposure or in persons who have had multiple sexual partners in the last two weeks and where cases of smallpox have been reported.

The vaccine is new, and the authorities intend to collect data on what works so well.