Typhoid – Meczyki Online

Britain may be facing another medical crisis in the form of typhoid, a disease known to have been building up resistance to the antibiotics used to treat it for more than 1000 years.

Antibiotics are the only way to effectively treat a highly contagious infection, but researchers say the bacteria that cause it are evolving to become more drug-resistant. daily Express Report. The bacterium, Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi), has reportedly been building up its resistance to oral antibiotics for the past 30 years.

typhi strains contracted from 2014 to 2019 in Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and India, experts found that one particular strain was very resistant. (XDR) typhi, it is not only resistant to trademark antibiotics such as ampicillin and chloramphenicol, but is also creating a resilience to new drugs. These include treatments such as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins.

Cases of XDR typhi are increasing globally and while it is mainly found in Asia, health chiefs have warned that it represents a global threat, including in the UK. The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated antibiotic resistance as a global health emergency.

Jason Andrews, an infectious disease specialist at Stanford University in the US, said: “The speed at which highly resistant strains of S. typhi have emerged and spread in recent years is a real cause for concern. It is urgent to expand prevention. highlights the need for measures, especially in countries with the greatest risk.”

The latest development follows the discovery in 2018 of a typhoid “superbug” that was found to be resistant to five types of antibiotics. At least one travel-related case was detected in the UK after the pandemic broke out in Pakistan.

The first XDR typhoid strain was identified in Pakistan in 2016 and by 2019, the strain became the dominant genotype in the country. It has become so resistant to antibiotics that only one, called azithromycin, can treat it, and mutations that have created resistance to this drug are now spreading.

In a study on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant typhoid strains published in the medical journal Lancet, a team of international authors warned that it “threatening the efficacy of all oral antimicrobial drugs for typhoid treatment”. He continued: “The recent emergence of XDR and azithromycin-resistant S. typhi has created greater urgency for rapidly increasing prevention measures, including the use of typhoid conjugate vaccines, in typhoid-endemic countries.

“Such measures are needed in countries where the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among S. typhi isolates is currently high, but should not be limited to such settings, given the trend of international spread.”

Up to 70 percent of typhoid cases come from South Asia, but being an infection, it is easily possible to bring the disease from abroad. According to the NHS, around 300 infections are confirmed each year in the UK.

The NHS reports that most of these people got infected while visiting relatives in Bangladesh, India or Pakistan. But travelers from other parts of Asia, Africa and South America are also at risk.

While typhoid vaccines are available in the UK, Dr Rumina Hassan, pathology professor at Aga Khan University in Pakistan, warned: “Antibiotic resistance is a threat to all modern medicine and the scary part is that we are out of options.” According to the WHO, about 21 million people contract typhoid every year, and 161,000 people die from it.

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